[Healing thoughts] 불교, 美 주류사회에 급속히 확산...
||2003-12-19 11:29:41, 조회 : 9,558, 추천 : 1104
- SiteLink #1 : http://www.sunspot.net/
| 불교가 합리적인 종교라는 사실이 알려지면서 불교가 미국 백인 주류사회에 급속히 확산되는 과정을 밟고 있다고 12월7일, <볼티모어 썬> 지가 보도했다. -현대불교 제452호 기사 참조- 아래는 볼티모어 썬의 원문기사 -|
The ancient practice of meditation is becoming mainstream,
and more studies are showings its health benefits.
By Elizabeth Large
Originally published December 7, 2003
A funny thing happened to meditation on the way to the 21st century. It got demystified, and in the process became acceptable to mainstream America.
You won't hear people talking about Nirvana much with today's Westernized meditation, and there's hardly a crystal in sight. Instead scientists are studying Buddhist monks with electroencephalographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Health care professionals are recommending meditation when drugs and other therapies don't work, and sometimes when they do - they may call it a "relaxation technique," to avoid the m-word.
Meditation, a discipline nearly as old as human life and a mainstay of Eastern spirituality, has gained reluctant acceptance as a treatment for everything from high blood pressure to attention deficit disorder. By sitting quietly and concentrating on a word, breath or image, meditators can put themselves into a state of deep relaxation. Recent scientific studies have shown the process may boost the immune system, control pain and lower stress.
"Its effectiveness has been fairly well-established with controlled research," says Glenn Schiraldi, who is on the stress management faculty of the University of Maryland, College Park Department of Public and Community Health. Schiraldi meditates 10 or 15 minutes every morning. "It creates changes in the body opposite in every way to stress, and it's intrinsically pleasant to do."
Several months ago, an unusual conference took place at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Tibetan Buddhist monks and their spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, met with leading U.S. neuroscientists and behavioral researchers to plan future studies. The conference sold out to an audience of 1,200 (most of them scientists) and had a waiting list of 1,600.
"Meditation works," a cover story in Time magazine proclaimed this summer, detailing the scientific research that shows it can profoundly affect the body and actually reshape the brain. Millions of Americans seem to agree. As alternative medical treatments go, meditation seems to have the most clear-cut benefits, the kind that can be demonstrated in the lab (although the article also poked fun at the process, expressing the ambivalence many Americans still feel about it).
While it's true that meditation is being stripped of the mystical trappings that make Westerners uneasy - the chanting, incense and Sanskrit mantras (a repeated word or phrase to quiet the mind) - people who start practicing for health reasons often end up finding the spirituality of meditation on their own. Reaching Nirvana might be even better than, say, controlling migraines.
Bob Parrott meditates twice every day, both morning and night. He began this daily practice while undergoing cancer treatment. (Sun staff photo)
A few months ago, Bob Parrott, a 49-year-old car salesman who lives in Abingdon, was diagnosed with laryngeal cancer. He started to meditate daily, using a bargain-table book he picked up at a Barnes & Noble as a guide. When he talks about the benefits of meditating, he doesn't mention pain or stress, or the fact that he's able to tolerate the radiation treatments better.
"The system has helped me live in the here and now," he says. "I'm not wearing any of my hats. I'm not a car salesman. Not a husband. Not a father. The discovery of a deeper self erases a lot of the fear of mortality."
The short-term positive effects of meditation on the nervous system have been generally accepted in the United States ever since the best seller Relaxation Response by a Harvard cardiologist, Herbert Benson, was published in 1975. The latest science suggests meditation can have long-term health benefits, maybe even life-extending ones. Sophisticated scans have shown it can actually rewire the brain.
You don't need any special equipment to practice, although a whole industry has sprung up in the last few years selling cushions, clothes, audio and videotapes, books and focusing aids like meditation crystals. You don't have to wait for an appointment or worry about whether your health insurance will pay for it. And you don't have to be a New Age kook.
Lisa Sanders, a Towson graduate student whose field is human resources development, has been practicing for the last three years. Three or four evenings a week she goes into her bedroom, puts on a CD of meditation music she bought at Best Buy, sits with her legs crossed and meditates for 15 or 20 minutes.
"I relax, I get a new start on whatever I'm into, it calms me down," she says.
If scientists were recording the 23-year-old's EEGs as she focuses on her breathing, shuts out the outside world and enters a meditative state, they would find that the activity in the areas of her brain that process sensory information slows down. Conscious thought decreases and relaxation increases.
In a small but intriguing study, Richard Davidson, a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, found that "mindfulness meditation" - focusing on the present moment and appreciating it fully - seems to increase activity in the area of the brain associated with lower anxiety and a more optimistic outlook in general, a result that lasts after the meditation practice ends. His research team also studied immune function by giving participants in the study flu shots. Two months later those who meditated had developed significantly more antibodies to the vaccine than the control group.
So why isn't everyone meditating? For one thing, it isn't easy. Getting your mind to focus on the present and become quiet isn't something Westerners are comfortable doing - oms or no oms. Meditating takes patience and perseverance. Buddhists call it "meditation practice" for a reason. To get good at it, you have to do it daily.
But meditation does have a major advantage over other alternative medicines. Doctors and hospitals are comfortable suggesting patients try it because the only downside is feeling foolish or getting bored. No one is sticking needles in patients or manipulating their spines. They aren't taking herbal supplements not regulated by the FDA. Even the sickest patients don't require supervision, just a little gentle instruction and an open mind.
St. Joseph's Medical Center in Towson, for instance, has a Heart Directions Program for those recovering from cardiac surgery. Lyn Stewart, a meditation and yoga instructor, is one of several people who work with patients at their bedside or in chairs.
"If they've never meditated, I invite them to close their eyes and focus on a light or a favorite place," she says. "I take them into a guided relaxation and invite them to bring themselves inward."
The reception is, she admits, mixed. "Some have great difficulty. Some find it helpful and ask us to come back. Some aren't able, for whatever reason, to let go."
"There are a thousand ways to meditate," says stress management expert Glenn Schiraldi. You don't have to sit cross-legged or empty your mind of conscious thought. You can do a walking meditation or trance dance. (Don't ask.)
And there are a thousand different reasons to meditate. Tibetan Buddhists believe that you can connect with your "true, happy nature" by meditating - all the things that make humans good. Other schools of thought feel meditation can put you in touch with divine nature, or God. Most cultures have used meditation in some form or another, including Aborigines and Native Americans.
You may want to try meditating simply as a relaxation technique, because you're feeling stressed out or you're not sleeping well. Whatever your reason, getting started is the easy part.
Get some help. It might be a book or a tape or the Internet, but another person is best. "We all have misconceptions when we start out," says Chris Kreeger, a meditation instructor at the Shambhala Center in Baltimore. For instance, he says, "It's not about not having thoughts. It's more about not being attached to them."
Find a place to practice. It should be quiet, and you should be comfortable there. "Setting up a place cues us," says Baltimore psychologist Elaine Yamada, who deals with trauma survivors in her private practice. "It tells our bodies this is the time to be in that quiet way."
Make a commitment to practice on a daily basis, even if only for a few minutes.
Close or half close your eyes and pick a word or a phrase to say over and over. Its rhythm will help you focus. It could be in the form of a prayer if that appeals to you, such as one of Kreeger's suggestions, "Be still and know that I am God." Or it could be a syllable like "om."
"Any phrase that resonates with you will do," says Yamada.
Or pay attention to your breath. Concentrate on the sensation of breathing to the exclusion of everything else.
Let any thoughts that intrude float away like a leaf on the river. With practice, distracting thoughts will subside.
you need more help than you can get from a book or a video, the yoga classes at your gym probably include a little meditation practice. Some churches, Quaker meetings and yoga centers offer meditation classes. The Shambhala Center in Baltimore has both Buddhist and nondenominational meditation. You can find other classes under "Meditation Instruction" in the Yellow Pages or on the Internet. Start with http://www.holisticopia.com/geo/Maryland_Meditation.htm.
Here's a sampling of the range of instruction available; it's by no means a complete list:
Baltimore Dharma Group
Burning House Zendo in Baltimore
Shambhala Center in Baltimore
Siddah Yoga Meditation Center in Columbia
Unitarian Universalist Church of Annapolis
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